História da Maternidade: em que ponto estamos?

Frederico Assis Cardoso, Marina Alves Amorim

Resumo


Este ensaio apresenta o que tem sido produzido sobre a maternidade pela historiografia. São, sobretudo, os trabalhos desenvolvidos na França, no campo da história das mulheres e dos estudos de gênero, que foram considerados, no momento de elaboração desse balanço historiográfico. No entanto, a contribuição de outras disciplinas para a elucidação do tema, especialmente da sociologia e da ciência política, e as pesquisas realizadas a respeito fora do território francês, particularmente em países de língua inglesa, não deixaram de ser abordadas. Trata-se de texto importante para os historiadores que se preocupam com a construção de uma história das mães ou da maternidade, o que justifica a sua tradução do francês para o português e a sua publicação no Brasil.

Palavras-chave


História; Maternidade; Mulher.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


ACCAMPO, Elinor; FUCHS, Rachel G.; STEWART, Mary Lynn (Org.). Gender and the politics of social reform in France (1870-1914). Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1995.

ALLEN, Ann Taylor. Feminism and motherhood in Germany (1800-1914). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1991.

ALLEN, Ann Taylor. Feminism, social science and the meanings of modernity: the debate on the origin of the family in Europe and the United States (1860-1914). American Historical Review, p. 1085-1113, Oct. 1999.

ALSOP, Rachel; HOCKEY, Jenny. Women’s reproductive lives as a symbolic resource in Central and Eastern Europe. The european journal of women’s studies, v. 8, n. 4, p. 454-471, 2001.

ARNLAUG, Leira. Welfare states and working mothers: the scandinavian experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

ARNUP, Katherine; LEVESQUE, Andrée; PIERSON, Ruth Roach (Org.). Delivering motherhood: maternal ideologies and practices in the 19th and 20th centuries. New York: Routledge, 1990.

ASHFORD, Douglas E. The emergence of the welfare states. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

AUSLANDER, Leora; ZANCARINI-FOURNEL, Michelle (Org.). Différence des sexes et protection sociale (XIXe-XXe siècles). Paris: Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, 1995.

AUSLANDER, Leora; ZANCARINI-FOURNEL, Michelle. Le genre de la nation. Clio, histoire, femmes et sociétés, Toulouse, n. 12, 2000.

BERNOS, Marcel; BITTON, Michèle (Org.). Femmes, familles, filiations: société et histoire. Aix-en-Provence : Presses de l’Université de Provence, 2004.

BLACK, Naomi. Social feminism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

BLOM, Ida. Voluntary motherhood (1900-1930): theories and politics of a norwegian feminist in an international perspective. In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the European welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 21-39.

BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the european welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991.

BOCK, Gisela. Antinatalism, maternity and paternity in the national socialist racism. In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the European welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 233-255.

BOCK, Gisela. Pobreza feminina, maternidade e direitos das mães na ascensão dos Estados-providência (1890-1950). In: THÉBAUD, Françoise (Org.). História das mulheres no ocidente: o século XX. Coleção organizada por Georges Duby e Michèle Perrot. Porto: Edições Afrontamento, 1992. p. 435-477. (História das mulheres no ocidente).

BOCK, Gisela. A política sexual nacional-socialista e a história das mulheres. In: THÉBAUD, Françoise (Org.). História das mulheres no ocidente: o século XX. Coleção organizada por Georges Duby e Michèle Perrot. Porto: Edições Afrontamento, 1992. p. 185-219. (História das mulheres no ocidente).

BOCK, Gisela. Women in european history. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.

BOCK, Gisela; COVA, Anne (Org.). Writing women’s history in Southern Europe (19th-20th Centuries). Écrire l’histoire des femmes en Europe du Sud (XIXe-XXe siècles). Oeiras: Celta, 2003.

BORDEAUX, Michèle. La victoire de la famille dans la France Défaite (Vichy, 1940-1944). Paris: Flammarion, 2002.

BOXER, Marilyn J. Protective legislation and home industry: the marginalization of women workers in late nineteenth-early twentieth century France. Journal of social history, p. 45-65, 1986.

BRYDER, Linda. Two models of infant welfare in the first half of the Twentieth Century: New Zealand and the USA. Women’s history review, v.12, n. 4, p. 547-558, 2003.

BUTTAFUOCO, Annarita. Motherwood as a political strategy: the role of the italian women’s moviment in the creation of the Cassa Nazionale di Maternità. In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the european welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 178-195.

CAROL, Anne. Le genre face aux mutations du savoir médical: sexes et nature féminine dans la fécondation (XVIe-XIXe siècles). In: CAPDEVILA, Luc et al. Le genre face aux mutations: masculin et féminin du Moyen Âge à nos jours. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2003. p. 83-92.

CARPENTER, K. M. N. For mothers only: mothers convalescent homes and modernizing maternal ideology in 1950s West Germany. Journal of Social History, v. 34, n. 4, p. 863-893, 2001.

CHAPERON, Sylvie. L’histoire contemporaine des sexualités en France. Vingtième Siècle, 75, p. 47-59, jul./set. 2002.

CLARK, Linda. The rise of professional women in France: gender and public administration since 1830. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

COHEN, Miriam; HANAGAN, Michael. The politics of gender and the making of the welfare state (1900-1940): a comparative perspective. Journal of Social History, v. 24, n. 3, p. 469-484, 1991.

COHEN, Yolande. Profession infirmière: une histoire des soins infirmiers dans les hôpitaux du Québec. Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 2000.

COLE, Joshua. The power of large numbers: population, politics and gender in nineteenth-century France. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

COMACCHIO, Cynthia R. Nations are built of babies: saving Ontario’s mothers and children (1900-1940). Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1993.

COVA, Anne. French feminism and maternity: theories and policies (1880-1918). In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the european welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 119-137.

COVA, Anne. Maternité et droits des femmes en France (XIXe-XXe siècles). Paris: Anthropos-Economica, 1997.

COVA, Anne. Au service de l’eglise, de la patrie et de la famille. In: Femmes catholiques et maternité sous la IIIe République. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2000.

COVA, Anne. La maternité : un enjeu dans le premier XXe siècle. In: GUBIN, Eliane et al. (Org.). Le siècle des féminismes. Paris: Les Éditions de l’Atelier, 2004. p. 195-208.

D’AMELIA, Marina (Org.). Storia della maternità. Roma: Laterza, 1997.

DETRAGIACHE, Denise. Un aspect de la politique démographique de l’Italie fasciste: la répression de l’avortement. Mélanges de l’ecole française de Rome, v. 92, 1980.

DIEBOLT, Evelyne. Les femmes dans l’action sanitaire, sociale et culturelle (1901-2001): les associations face aux institutions. Paris: Femmes et Associations, 2001.

DOWNS, Laura Lee. L’inégalité à la Chaîne: la division sexuée du travail dans l’industrie métallurgique en France et en Angleterre (1914-1939). Paris: Albin Michel, 2002.

EVANS, Peter B.; RUBSCHEMEYER, Dietrich; SKOCPOL, Theda (Org.). Bringing the state back in. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. (1a ed.: 1985).

FAURE, Christine (Org.). Encyclopédie politique et historique des femmes: Europe, Amérique du Nord. Paris: PUF, 1997.

FAY-SALLOIS, Fanny. Les nourrices à Paris au XIXe siècle. Paris: Payot, 1980.

FILDES, Valerie. Wet nursing: a history from antiquity to the present. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.

FILDES, Valerie; Marks, Lara; MARLAND, Hilary (Org.). Women and children first: international maternal and infant welfare (1870-1945). London: Routledge, 1992.

FODOR, Eva; GLASS, Christy; KAWACHI, Janette; POPESCU, Livia. Family policies and gender in Hungary, Poland and Romania. Communist and Post-Communist studies, v. 35, n. 4, p. 475-490, Dec. 2002.

FORTINO, Sabine. De filles en mères: la seconde vague du féminisme et la maternité. Clio, histoire, femmes et sociétés, Toulouse, n. 5, p. 217-238, 1997.

FOUQUET, Catherine; KNIBIEHLER, Yvonne. Histoire des mères du Moyen Âge à nos jours. Paris: Montalba, 1977.

FOUQUET, Catherine; KNIBIEHLER, Yvonne. La femme et les médecins: analyse historique. Paris: Hachette, 1983.

FUCHS, Rachel G. Abandoned children: foundlings and child welfare in nineteenth century France. Albany: University of New York Press, 1983.

FUCHS, Rachel G. Poor and pregnant in Paris: strategies for survival in the nineteenth century. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1992.

GAUTHIER, Xavière. Naissance d’une liberté. Contraception, avortement: le grand combat des femmes au XXe siècle. Paris: Robert Laffont, 2002.

GAUTIER, Arlette; HEINEN, Jacqueline (Org.). Le sexe des politiques sociales. Paris: Côté-femmes, 1993.

GERHARD, Ute. Politique sociale et maternité: le cas de l’allemagne à l’est et à l’ouest. Travail, genre et société, n. 6, p.59-81, 2001.

GIORGIO, Michela De. Le italiane dall’unità ad oggi. Roma: Laterza, 1992.

GORDON, Linda (Org.). Women, the state and welfare. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.

GORDON, Linda. The new feminist scholarship on the welfare state. In: GORDON, Linda (Org.). Women, the state and welfare. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1990. p. 9-35.

GORDON, Linda. Black and white of welfare: women’s welfare activism (1890-1945). The Journal of American History, v. 78, n. 2, p. 559-590, Sep. 1991.

GORDON, Linda. Why Nineteenth-century feminists did not support “Birth Control” and Twentieth-Century feminists do: feminism, reproduction and the family. In: THORNE, Barrie; YALOM, Marilyn (Org.). Rethinking the family: some feminist questions. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992. p. 140-154.

GORDON, Linda. Social insurance and public assistance: the influence of gender in welfare thought in the United States (1890-1935). American historical review, v. 97, n. 1, p. 19-54, Feb. 1992.

GORDON, Linda. Gender, State and society: a debate with Theda Skocpol. Contention, v. 2, n. 3, p. 139-156, Spring, 1993.

GORDON, Linda. Pitied but not entitled: single mothers and the history of welfare. New York: Free Press, 1994.

GORNICK, Janet C.; MEYERS, Marcia K., ROSS, Katherin E. Supporting the employment of mothers: policy variation across fourteen welfare states. Journal of european social policy, v. 7, n. 1, p. 45-70, 1997.

GRAYZEL, Susan R. Women’s identities at war: gender, motherhood and politics in Britain and France during the First World War. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

GRAYZEL, Susan R. Across battle fronts: gender and the comparative cultural history of modern european war. In: COHEN, Deborah; O’CONNOR, Maura (Org.). Comparison and history: Europe in cross-national perspective. London: Routledge, 2004. p. 71-84.

GRAZIA, Victoria de. How fascism ruled woman Italy (1922-1945). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

GROSSMANN, Atina. Abortion and economic crisis: the 1931 campaign against 218 in Germany. New german critique, v. 14, p. 119-137, Spring, 1978.

GUBIN, Eliane et al. (Org.). Le siècle des féminismes. Paris: Les Éditions de l’Atelier, 2004.

GUERRAND, Roger-Henri. La libre maternité (1896-1969). Tournai: Casterman, 1971.

HANEY, Lynne A. Engendering the welfare state: a review article. Comparative studies in society and history, v. 40, n. 4, p. 748-767, 1998.

HANEY, Lynne A. Inventing the needy: gender and the politics of welfare in Hungary. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

HEINEMAN, Elizabeth D. Age and generation in women’s history. Whose mothers? Generational difference, war and the nazi cult motherhood. Journal of Women’s History, v. 12, n. 4, p. 138-163, 2001.

HEINEMAN, Elizabeth D. What difference does a husband make? Women and marital status in Nazi and Postwar Germany. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. (1ª ed.: 1999).

HELD, David. Political theory and the modern state: essays on state, power and democracy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989.

IBSEN, Hilde; SHIP, Anne-Lise. Family Welfare, Which policy? Norway’s road to child allowances. In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the European welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 40-59.

JENSON, Jane. Gender and reproduction: or, babies and the state. Studies in political economy, v. 20, p.9-45, Summer, 1986.

JENSON, Jane. Both friend and foe: woman and state welfare. In: BRIDENTHAL, Renate; KOONZ, Claudia; STUARD, Susan (Org.). Becoming visible: women in European history. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987. p. 535-556. (1a ed.: 1977)

JENSON, Jane. Paradigms and political discourse: protective legislation in France and the United States before 1914. Canadian journal of political science, v. XXII, n. 2, p. 235-258, Jun. 1989.

JENSON, Jane; SINEAU, Mariette (Org.). Qui doit garder le jeune enfant? Modes d’accueil et travail des mères dans l’Europe en crise. Paris: LGDJ, 1998.

JENSON, Jane; SINEAU, Mariette (Org.). Who cares? Women’s work, childcare and welfare state redesign. Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2001.

KERTZER, David I.; BARBAGLI, Marzio (Org.). The history of the european family: family life in the twentieth century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

KLAUS, Alisa. Every child a lion: the origins of maternal and infant health policy in the United States and France (1890-1920). Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.

KNIBIEHLER, Yvonne. Les médecins et la “nature féminine“ au temps du code civil. Annales, n. 4, p. 824-845, jul./ago. 1976.

KNIBIEHLER, Yvonne et al. Cornettes et Blouses Blanches: les infirmières dans la société française (1880-1980). Paris: Hachette, 1984.

KNIBIEHLER, Yvonne. Les pères aussi ont une histoire... Paris: Hachette, 1987.

KNIBIEHLER, Yvonne. La révolution maternelle: femmes, maternité, citoyenneté depuis 1945. Paris: Perrin, 1997.

KNIBIEHLER, Yvonne (Org.). Repenser la maternité. Panoramiques, n. 40, 1999.

KNIBIEHLER, Yvonne. Histoire des mères et de la maternité en occident. Paris: PUF, 2000.

KNIBIEHLER, Yvonne (Org.). Maternité: affaire privé, affaire publique. Paris: Bayard, 2001.

KOOS, Cheryl Ann. Engendering reaction: the politics of pronatalism and the family in France (1919-1944). 1996. Tese (Doutorado) – University of Southern California, California.

KOOS, Cheryl Ann. On les aura! The gendered politics of abortion and the Alliance Nationale contre la Depopulation (1938-1944). Modern and contemporary France, v.7, n. 1, p. 21-34, fev. 1999.

KOVEN, Seth; MICHEL, Sonya (Org.). Mothers of a new world: maternalist politics and the origins of welfare states. London: Routledge, 1993.

KUNZEL, Regina. Fallen women, problem girls: unmarried mothers and the professionalization of social work (1890-1945). New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

LADD-TAYLOR, Molly. Mother, work, women, child welfare and the state (1890-1930). University of Illinois Press, 1993.

LADD-TAYLOR, Molly; UMANSKY, Lauri (Org.). “Bad” mothers: the politics of blame in twentieth-century America. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

LAKE, Marilyn. A revolution in the family: the challenge and contradictions of maternal citizenship in Australia. In: KOVEN, Seth; MICHEL, Sonya (Org.). Mothers of a new world: maternalist politics and the origins of welfare states. London: Routledge, 1993. p.378-395.

LAPLAIGE, Danielle. Sans famille à Paris: orphelins et enfants abandonnés de la seine au XIXe siècle. Paris: Centurion, 1989.

LE NAOUR, Jean-Yves; VALENTI, Catherine. Histoire de l’avortement (XIXe-XXe siècle). Paris: Seuil, 2003.

LEVY, Marie-Françoise. De mères en filles: l’éducation des françaises (1850-1880). Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1984.

LEWIS, Jane. The Politics of Motherhood: child and maternal welfare in England (1900-1939). London: Croom Helrn, 1980.

LEWIS, Jane (Org.). Women’s welfare, women’s rights. London: Croom & Helrn, 1983.

LEWIS, Jane. Models of equality for women: the case of state support for children in twentieth-century Britain. In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the European welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 73-92.

LEWIS, Jane. Gender and welfare in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. In: DIGBY, Anne; STEWART, John (Org.). Gender, health and welfare. London: Routledge, 1996. p. 208-228.

LEWIS, Jane (Org.). Gender, social care and welfare state restructuring in Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.

LEWIS, Jane. Gender and Welfare State Change. European Societies, v. 4, n. 4, p. 331-357, 2002.

MAHONEY, James; RUESCHEMEYER, Dietrich (Org.). Comparative historical analysis in the social sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

MARSHALL, T. H. Class, citizenship and social development. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1964.

MARTIN, Jacqueline. Politique Familiale et Travail des Femmes Mariées en France: perspective historique (1942-1982). Population, v. 6, p. 1119-1152, 1998.

MEAD, Karen. Beneficent maternalism: argentine motherhood in comparative perspective (1880-1920). Journal of women’s wistory, v. 12, n. 3, p. 120-145, Autumn, 2000.

MINK, Gwendolyn. The wages of motherhood: inequality in the Welfare State (1917-1942). Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.

MISRA, Joya. Mothers or workers? The value of women’s labor: women and the emergence of family allowance policy. Gender and society, v. 12, n. 4, p.376-399, ago. 1998.

MOELLER, Robert G. Protecting motherhood: women and the family in the politics of postwar West Germany. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

MORGAN, Kimberly J. The politics of mothers’ employment: France in comparative perspective. World politics, v. 55, p.259-289, jan. 2003.

MUEL-DRYFUS, Francine. Vichy et l’eternel féminin: contribution à une sociologie politique de l’ordre des corps. Paris: Seuil, 1996.

MURRAY, Karen Bridget. Governing « unwed mothers » in Toronto at the turn of the Twentieth Century. The canadian historical review, v. 85, n. 2, p.253-276, jun. 2004.

NASH, Mary. Pronatalism and motherhood in franco’s Spain. In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the European welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 160-177.

OFFEN, Karen. Depopulation, nacionalism and feminism in Fin-de-Siècle France. American historical review, v. 89, n. 3, p. 648-676, jun. 1984.

OFFEN, Karen; PIERSON, Ruth Roach; RENDALL, Jane (Org.). Writing women’s history: international perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

OFFEN, Karen. Body politics: women, work and the politics of motherhood in France (1920-1950). In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the European welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 138-159.

OFFEN, Karen. European feminism (1700-1950): a political history. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.

OHLANDER, Ann-Sofie. The invisible child? The struggle for a social democratic family policy in Sweden (1900-1960). In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the European welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 60-72.

PEDERSEN, Susan. Family dependence and the origins of the welfare state: Britain and France (1914-1945). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

PEDERSEN, Susan. Comparative history and women’s history: explaining convergence and divergence. In: COHEN, Deborah; O’CONNOR, Maura (Org.). Comparison and history: Europe in cross-national perspective. London: Routledge, 2004. p. 85-102.

PICKERING-LAZZI, Robin (Org.). Mothers of Invention: women, Italian fascism and culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995.

PIERSON, Ruth Roach. Ellen Key: maternalism and pacifism. In: ARNUP, Katherine; LEVESQUE, Andrée; PIERSON, Ruth Roach (Org.). Delivering Motherhood: maternal ideologies and practices in the 19th and 20th centuries. New York: Routledge, 1990. p. 270-283.

POLLARD, Miranda. Reign of virtue: mobilizing gender in Vichy France. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1998.

QUINE, Maria Sophia. Italy’s social revolution: charity and welfare from liberalism to fascism. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

RE, Alisa Del. Les femmes et l’État-providence: les politiques sociales en France dans les années trente. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1994.

ROBERTS, Mary Louise. Civilization without sexes: reconstructing gender in postwar France (1917-1927). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

ROLLET-ÉCHALIER, Catherine. La politique à l’Égard de la petite enfance sous la IIIe République. Paris: INED, 1990. (Travaux et Documents, 127).

RONSIN, Francis. La grève des ventres: propagande néo-malthusienne et baisse de la natalité française (XIXe-XXe siècles). Paris: Aubier Montaigne, 1980.

RUGGIE, Mary. The state and working women: a comparative study of Britain and Sweden. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

SAINSBURY, Diane (Org.). Gender and welfare state regimes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

SAINSBURY, Diane. Gender and the making of welfare states: Norway and Sweden. Social politics: international studies in gender, state & society, v. 8, p.113-143, 2001.

SARACENO, Chiara. Redefining maternity and paternity: gender, pronatalism and social policies in fascist Italy. In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the European welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 196-212.

SARACENO, Chiara. Social and family policy. In: KERTZER, David I.; BARBAGLI, Marzio (Org.). The history of the european family: family life in the twentieth century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. p.238-269.

SCHULTHEISS, Katrin. Bodies and souls: politics and professionalization of nursing in France (1880-1922). Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.

SKOCPOL, Theda. Protecting soldiers and mothers: the political origins of social policy in the United States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.

SKOCPOL, Theda. Doubly engaged social science: the promise of comparative historical analysis. In: MAHONEY, James; RUESCHEMEYER, Dietrich (Org.). Comparative historical analysis in the social sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. p. 407-428.

SOHN, Anne-Marie; THELAMON, Françoise (Org.). L’histoire sans les femmes est-elle possible? Paris: Perrin, 1998.

STEWART, Mary Lynn. Women, work and the french state: labour protection and social patriarchy (1879-1919). Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1989.

STOEHR, Irene. Housework and motherhood: debates and politics in the women’s movement in Imperial Germany and the Weimar Republic. In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.) Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the European welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 213-232.

SUSSMAN, George D. Selling mothers’ milk: the wet-nursing business in France (1715-1914). Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982.

TAEGER, Angela. L’état, les enfants trouvés et les allocations familiales en France (XIXe-XXe siècles). Francia, p. 15-33, 1989.

THANE, Pat. Genre et protection sociale: la protection maternelle et infantile en Grande-Bretagne (1860-1918). Genèses, n. 6, p. 73-97, dez. 1991.

THANE, Pat. Visions of gender in the making of the british welfare state: the case of women in the british labour party and social policy (1906-1945). In: BOCK, Gisela; THANE, Pat (Org.). Maternity and gender policies: women and the rise of the European welfare states, (1880s-1950s). New York: Routledge, 1991. p. 93-118.

THÉBAUD, Françoise. Le movement nataliste dans la France de l’Entre-Deux-Guerres: L’Alliance Nationale pour l’accroissement de la population Française. Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine, v. 32, p. 276-301, abr./jun. 1985.

THÉBAUD, Françoise. Quand nos grand-mères donnaient la vie: la maternité en France dans l’entre-deux-guerres. Lyon: PUL, 1986.

THÉBAUD, Françoise (Org.). História das mulheres no ocidente: o século XX. Coleção organizada por Georges Duby e Michèle Perrot. Porto: Edições Afrontamento,

(História das Mulheres no Ocidente).

THÉBAUD, Françoise. Écrire l’histoire des femmes. Fontenay/Saint-Cloud: ENS, 1998.

THOLINSON, Richard Peter. The politics of dénatalité during the french Third Republic (1890-1940). 1984. Tese (Doutorado) – Christ’s College, Cambridge.

WILLSON, Perry R. The clockwork factory: women and work in fascist Italy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

YAGIL, Limore. La politique familiale de Vichy et la conception de la “femme nouvelle”. Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, n. 188, p. 27-49. 1997.

ZANCARINI-FOURNEL, Michelle. Genre et politique: les années 1968. Vingtième Siècle, 75, p.133-143, jul./set. 2002.

ZANCARINI-FOURNEL, Michelle. Notre Corps, Nous-mêmes. In: GUBIN, Eliane et al. (Org.). Le siècle des féminismes. Paris: Les Éditions de l’Atelier, 2004. p.209-220.






Latindex

Sumários.org

E-Revist@s

Periodicos.CAPES

SEER/IBICT

LivRe

JournalTOCs

REBID

Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB

DOAJ

Oasisbr