The fourth estate speaks out: newspapers endorsements’ rebuke of Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election

O quarto estado se manifesta: a rejeição dos apoios editoriais a Trump na eleição presidencial de 2016

  • Leandro Almeida Lima Universidade de São Paulo (USP)


The article analyzes the newspapers endorsements in the US in the 2016 presidential election and, in particular, the massive rejection of the Republican nominee Donald Trump. It is argued that it was due to Trump’s non-belonging to mainstream politics and the press tendency to centrism.

Biografia do Autor

Leandro Almeida Lima, Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Mestrando em Ciência Política e bacharel em Relações Internacionais pela Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Bolsista da Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP).


Alterman, Eric. "What liberal media? The truth about bias and the news." Sacred Heart University Review 22, no. 1 (2010): 2.

America Presidency Project. 2012 General Election Editorial Endorsements by Major Newspapers. 2012.

Available at: (Accessed: 10/11/2016),

America Presidency Project. 2016 General Election Editorial Endorsements by Major Newspapers. 2016.

Available at: (Accessed: 10/11/2016).

Badger, Emily, Bui, Quoctrung, Pearce, Adam “The Election Highlighted a Growing Rural-Urban Split” The New York Times, November 11, 2016.

Bartlett, Bruce. “‘Trump Is What Happens When a Political Party Abandons Ideas’” Politico Magazine, June 24, 2017.

Borchers, Callum. “Donald Trump is making endorsement history – and not in a good way” The Washington Post, October 11, 2016.

Brock, David. The Republican noise machine: Right-wing media and how it corrupts democracy. Three Rivers Press (CA), 2005.

Cherkaoui, M. “Donald Trump: the rise of right-wing politics in America”. Report. Al Jazeera Center for Studies. 2016.

Cohen, M. “Political Newspaper Endorsements: History and Outcome” The New York Times, October 26, 2011.

De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America. (Penn State Electronic Classics Series Publications, 2003.

Domke, David, Mark D. Watts, Dhavan V. Shah, and David P. Fan. "The politics of conservative elites and the ‘liberal media’argument." Journal of Communication 49, no. 4 (1999): 35-58.

Entman, Robert M. "Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm." Journal of communication 43, no. 4 (1993): 51-58.

Gentzkow, Matthew, Edward L. Glaeser, and Claudia Goldin. "The rise of the fourth estate. How newspapers became informative and why it mattered." Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's Economic History. (University of Chicago Press, 2006, 187-230.

Goldberg, Bernard. Bias: A CBS insider exposes how the media distort the news. Regnery Publishing, 2014.

Hallin, Daniel C., and Paolo Mancini, eds. Comparing media systems beyond the Western world. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Heer, Jeet. “President Donald Trump Is a Radical Extremist” New Republic, January 20, 2017.

Kahn, Kim Fridkin, and Patrick J. Kenney. "The slant of the news: How editorial endorsements influence campaign coverage and citizens' views of candidates." American Political Science Review 96, no. 2 (2002): 381-394.

Linker, Damon. “Donald Trump is building the most right-wing administration in American history” The Week, November 30, 2016.

McCombs, Maxwell E., and Donald L. Shaw. "The agenda-setting function of mass media." Public opinion quarterly 36, no. 2 (1972): 176-187.

Patterson, Thomas E. "The United States: News in a free-market society." Democracy and the media: A comparative perspective (2000): 241-65.

Rothwell, Jonathan T., and Pablo Diego-Rosell. "Explaining nationalist political views: The case of Donald Trump." (2016).

Scheufele, Dietram A., and David Tewksbury. "Framing, agenda setting, and priming: The evolution of three media effects models." Journal of communication 57, no. 1 (2007): 9-20.

Siebert, Fred Seaton, Theodore Peterson, and Wilbur Schramm. Four theories of the press: The authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, and Soviet communist concepts of what the press should be and do. University of Illinois Press, 1956

Strömberg, David. "Mass media competition, political competition, and public policy." The Review of Economic Studies 71, no. 1 (2004): 265-284.

The New York Times. What’s to happen. The New York Times, October 11, 1860.

Thompson, Derek. “Trump vs. Clinton: A Battle Between Two Opposite Americas” The Atlantic, April 28, 2016.

Como Citar
Almeida Lima, L. (2018). The fourth estate speaks out: newspapers endorsements’ rebuke of Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election. Conjuntura Internacional, 14(3), 70-80.
Dossiê "Sociedade, economia e política na Era Trump: o que será dos Estados Unidos?"