From Latin American International Political Economy to Latin American Global Political Economy

Da Economia Política Internacional Latino-americana à Economia Política Global Latino-americana

  • Ernesto Vivares FLACSO Ecuador
  • Raúl Salgado Espinoza FLACSO Ecuador


This paper focuses on the differences between International Political Economy (IPE) versus Global Political Economy (GPE) in Latin America. It explores how IPE tends to be taught and researched beyond mainstream IPE but in dialogue with it. It engages with the main literature of this field to discuss the contours and extension of a transition in teaching and research. It rests upon a historical sociological approach and employs a qualitative analysis of syllabi and curricula of various masters and doctoral programs on International Relations/Studies and underlying disciplines, and is complemented with semi-structured interviews with leading scholars of IPE from across the region. The paper argues that there is a shift from mainstream IPE to a new Latin American GPE as the result of a revitalization of the field and as a response to the new regional and global challenges. New dynamics of development, conflict and a changing world order coexist with old problems, pushing our field to find new responses, demonstrating the limits of the traditional knowledge, and requiring the development of new contributions. While the shift may be minor, it is constant and steady, and is neither homogenous nor dominated by a unique vision of the field, but it is defined by heterogeneity and plurality.

Biografia do Autor

Ernesto Vivares, FLACSO Ecuador

Professor in International Political Economy at FLACSO Ecuador, Master from Birmingham University and PhD from Sheffield University in UK. His research focus on Global and Regional Political Economy, South America, Development and Conflict. ORCID 0000 0002 2136 1089.

Raúl Salgado Espinoza, FLACSO Ecuador

Full-term professor and researcher of foreign policy, political thought and qualitative methods at the Department of International Studies and Communication, FLACSO Ecuador. He holds a Ph.D. in Political Science and International Studies from the University of Birmingham, UK. ORCID: 0000-0002-1540-5583


ABDIH, Y.; MEDINA, L.. Measuring the Informal Economy in the Caucasus and Central Asia. International Monetary Fund, WP/13/137, 2013.
ACHARYA, A. Dialogue and discovery: in search of international relations theories beyond the west. Millennium 39(3): 619-37, 2011.
ACOSTA, A.; GUDYNAS, E. Lecciones del caso Bolsonaro: Lecturas para una nueva izquierda. 2018. Disponible en: https//
ACOSTA, A. Extractivismo y neo extractivismo: dos caras de la misma maldición. Varios autores. Mas allá del desarrollo, Grupo Permanente de Trabajo sobre alternativas de Desarrollo, Universidad Politécnica Salesiana/Fundación Rosa Luxemburgo, Quito, Ecuador, 2011.
AGNEW, J. The Territorial Trap: The Geographical Assumptions of International Relations Theory. Review of International Political Economy 1 (1): 53—80, 1994.
AMIN. S. La desconexión, hacia un sistema mundial policéntrico. Madrid: IEPALA, 1988.
AMIN, S. Eurocentrism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1988.
ASHWORTH, L. A revisionist history of International Relations. International Relations 16(1): 33-51, 2002.
ASTORGA, P. Functional Inequality in Latin America: News from the Twentieth Century. 2015. Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History, No 135.
BERGMAN, M. Illegal Drugs, Drug Trafficking and Violence in Latin America. New York: Springer, 2018.
BERTOLA, L.; OCAMPO, J.A. El desarrollo económico de América Latina desde la independencia. Oxford: Oxford University, 2012.
BLYTH, M. Routledge Handbook of International Political Economy. New York Routledge, 2009.
BONILLA, A.; LONG, G. Un nuevo regionalismo sudamericano. Íconos: revista de Ciencias Sociales 38: 23–28, 2010.
BRICEÑO, J.; MORALES, I. (eds.) Regionalism in the Americas: Toward a Pacific-Atlantic Divide? New York: Palgrave, 2017.
BULMER-THOMAS, V. The Economic History of Latin America Since Independence. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
BURGESS, R. The Role of Theory in Field Research. In Field Research: A Sourcebook and Field Manual, ed. R. Burgess, 1982. p. 209–212.
CAFRUNY, A. Introduction. IN CAFRUNY, A.; TALANI, L.; POZO, G. (eds.). The Palgrave Handbook of Critical International Political Economy. 2016. p. 1-8. CAJA-GUIJARRO, J. Los capos del comercio: concentración, poder y acuerdos comerciales en el Ecuador. Quito: Ecuador decide sin TLC, 2018.
CANALES, A. Global and Regional Political Economy of Migration. In VIVARES, E.(ed.), Regionalism, Development and the Post-Commodities Boom in South America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. p. 243-270.
COHEN, B. International Political Economy: An intellectual history. Princeton and Oxford: New Jersey, UK, 2008.
COHEN, B. Advanced Introduction to International Political Economy. First edition. Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK, 2014.
COHEN, B. Advanced Introduction to International Political Economy. 2nd edition. Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK, 2019.
COX, R. The Political Economy of a Plural World. New York: Routledge, 2002.
CARVALHO, A.; GIL-PEREZ, D. Formação de professores de ciências: tendências e inovações. 10. ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2011. 127 p. (Questões da nossa época, v. 28) ISBN: 9788524917257.
DECIANCIO, M. La Economía Política Internacional en el Campo de las Relaciones Internacionales argentinas. Desafios 30(2):15-42, 2018.
DECIANCIO, M. International Relations from the South: A Regional Research Agenda for Global IR. International Studies Review 18 (1): 106–19, 2016.
DECIANCIO, M. El regionalismo latinoamericano en la agenda de Relaciones Internacionales, Iberoamericana, Vol. 16, Núm. 63, 2016.
DELGADO, J. Sociedades post neoliberales en América Latina y persistencia del extractivismo. Economía Informa 396, 1: 84-95, 2016.
de LIMA, G.; HECHT, S. Sacred groves, sacrifice zones and soy production: globalization, intensification and neo-native in South America. Journal of Peasant Studies 43(2): 251-285, 2016.
DIAZ ALEJANDRO, C. Open Economy, Closed Polity?. In Trade, Development and the World Economy, edited by Andrés Velasco, 1988. p. 283–309.
DORNBUSCH, R.; EDWARDS, S (Ed.). The Macroeconomics of Populism in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
ELIAS, J. The gendered political economy of control and resistance on the shop floor of the multinational firm: A case study from Malaysia. New Political Economy 10(2): 203-222, 2013.
EL PAIS. Radiografía del gran éxodo venezolano. Disponible en: Accessed 13 Diciembre 2018
ESTAY, J. Past and Present of Latin American Regionalisms, in the Face of Economic Reprimarization. In VIVARES, E.(ed.), Regionalism, Development and the Post-Commodities Boom in South America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. p. 47-76.
ESTAY, J.; SÁNCHEZ, G. (Coord.). El ALCA y sus peligros para América Latina. Buenos Aires: CLACSO, 2005.
FELD, L.; LARSEN, C. Undeclared Work in Germany 2001–2007 – Impact of Deterrence, Tax Policy, and Social Norms: An Analysis Based on Survey Data, Springer, Berlin, 2009.
FRANKEMA, E. Reconstructing labor income shares in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico 1870-2000. Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History 28, 2: 343-374, 2010.
FRIEDEN, J.; LAKE, D. International Political Economy: Perspectives on Global Power and Wealth. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1999.
FRENKEL, R. Globalization and financial crises in Latin America. CEPAL Review 80, 2003.
FUENTES, L.; DURÁN, G. Cities in the South American Development: Bogota, Lima, Quito, and Santiago in Regional Frame. In VIVARES, E.(ed.), Regionalism, Development and the Post-Commodities Boom in South America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. p. 217-242.
GALLAGHER, K. The China Triangle: Latin America’s China Boom and the Fate of the Washington Consensus. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.
GALLAGHER, K.; IRWIN, A. (2017). China`s Economic Statecraft in Latin America: Evidence from China`s Policy Banks. In MYERS, M.; WISE, C. (Eds.), The Political Economy of China-Latin America Relations in the New Millennium. Brave New World. New York, United States: Routledge, 2017. p. 50-68.
GASPARINI, L.; LUSTIG, N. The Rise and Fall of Income Inequality in Latin America, 27. Buenos Aires: Universidad de La Plata, ECINEQ WP/CEDLAS, 2011.
GILPIN, R. The Political Economy of International Relations, New York: Princeton University Press, 1987.
GRIFFITH-JONES, S. International Finance and Latin America. New York: St. Martin Press, 1984.
GROSFOGUEL, R. A Decolonial Approach to Political-Economy: Transmodernity, Border Thinking and Global Coloniality. Kult 6 - Special Issue Epistemologies of Transformation: Roskilde, 2009.
GROSFOGUEL, R. From Postcolonial Studies to Decolonial Studies: Decolonizing Postcolonial Studies: A Preface. Review 24 (2), 2006.
GROSFOGUEL, R.; CERVANTES-RODRIGUEZ, A. The Modern/Colonial/Capitalist World System in the Twentieth Century: Global Processes, Antisystemic Movements, and the Geopolitics of Knowledge. United States: Greenwood Press, 2000.
GUDYNAS, E. Diez tesis urgentes sobre el nuevo extractivismo. Contextos y demandas bajo el progresismo actual. En Centro Andino de Educación Popular (ed.) Extractivismo, política y sociedad. Quito: CAAP y CLAES, 2012. p. 187-225.
HELLEINER, E. Peripheral Thoughts for International Political Economy: Latin America Ideational Innovation and the Diffusion of the Nineteenth century Free Trade Doctrine. International Studies Quarterly 61: 924-934, 2017.
HELLEINER, E. Globalising the classical foundations of IPE thought, Contexto Internacional, 37(3): 975–1010, 2015.
HELLEINER, E.; ROSALES. Toward Global IPE: The Overlooked Significance of the Haya-Mariategui Debate: International Studies Review (19), 667–691, 2017.
HOBDEN, S.; HOBSON, J. (eds.). Historical Sociology of International Relations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
HOBSON, J. Part 1-revealing the Eurocentric foundations of IPE: a critical historiography of the discipline from the classical to the modern era. Review of International Political Economy 20(25): 1024-54, 2013.
INTERVIEW 4. Marcelo Saguier. Enero 2019. Entrevistado online por Ernesto Vivares.
JACKSON, T. The conduct of inquiry in international relations: Philosophy of science and its implications for the study of world politics. New York: Routledge, 2011.
JIMÉNEZ-PEÑA, G.; LEITERITZ, R.; URREGO-SANDOVAL, C. (2018). Dossier, Estado del Arte de la Economia Politica Internacional en Latinoamerica. Revista Desafios 30, no 2,6, 2018.
KEOHANE, R. The old IPE and the new. In Nicola Phillips and Catherine Weaver (eds.) International Political economy: Debating the Past, Present and Future, London: Routledge, 2011. p. 34-46.
KRASNER, S. International political economy: abiding discord. Review of International Political Economy. 1(1), 1994.
KRUGMAN, P.; OBSTFELD, M. International Economics: Theory and Policy. United States: Pearson International Edition, 2005.
LAKE, D. Open Economy Politics: A Critical Review. Review of International Organizations 4(3): 219-244, 2009.
LAKE, D. White Man’s IR: An Intellectual Confession. Perspectives on
Politics 14 (4): 1112–22, 2016.
LAKE, D. Theory is dead, long live theory: The end of the Great Debates and the Rise eclecticism in International Relations. European Journal of International Relations 19, 57-587, 2013.
LEITERITZ, R.; RIAÑO, M. Tras el corazón verde: los vaivenes del conflicto en la región esmeraldera de Colombia, en: RETTBERG, A.; LEITERITZ, R.; NASI, C. (comps.), Diferentes recursos, conflictos diferentes: La economía política del conflicto armado y la criminalidad en las regiones de Colombia. Ediciones Uniandes: Bogotá, 2018.
LUXTON, M. The production of life itself: gender, social reproduction and IPE. ELIAS, J.; ROBERTS, A. (eds.). Handbook on the International Political Economy of Gender. London: Edward Elgar, 2018. p. 37-49.
MACDONALD, L. The Politics of Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
MADEIRAS, M.; BARNABE, I.; ALBUQUERQUE, R.; LIMA, R. What does the field of International Relations look like in South America? Revista Brasileira de Political Internacional 59(1), 2016.
MADHOK, S.; SHIRIN, R. Agency, Injury, and Transgressive Politics in Neoliberal Times. Signs 37 (3): 645-669, 2012.
MAHMOOD, S. The Politics of Piety. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Segato, 2005.
MALIK, K. The quest for a moral compass: a global history of ethics. London: Atlantic, 2014.
MALAMUD, A.; GARDINI G. Has Regionalism Peaked? The Latin American Quagmire and Its Lessons. The International Spectator 47–1 (3): 116–133, 2012.
MALINIAK, D.; OAKES, A.; PETERSON, S.; TIERNEY, M. International Relations in the US Academy. International Studies Quarterly 55:437-64, 2011.
MALINIAK, D.; TIERNEY, M. The American School of IPE. Review of International Political Economy 16(1): 6-33, 2009.
MEDINA, L.; SCHNEIDER, F. Shadows Economies Around the World: What did we learn over the last 20 years? IMF: Working Paper 18/17, 2018. Disponible en:
MIGNOLO, W. (2016). Global Coloniality and the World Disorder. Decoloniality After Decolonization and Dewesternization After the Cold War. World Public Forum “Dialogue of Civilizations, 2016. Disponible en: Tucker 2018. accessed February 2, 2018.
MORALES, I. The renewal of U.S. Free Trade” diplomacy in the Americas: From Nafta to a deeper agenda of competitive liberalization for the region. Briceno, Jose and Morales, Isidro (eds.) Regionalism in the Americas: Toward a Pacific-Atlantic Divide? New York: Palgrave, 2017. p. 32-56.
MUGGAH, R. A Manifesto for the Fragile City. Journal of International Affairs. 68(2): 19-36, 2015.
MYERS, M.; GALLAGHER, K. Chinese development finance “down but not out” in Latin America. Global Americans, 2018.
NEMIÑA, P. La relación entre el FMI y los Gobiernos tomadores de créditos. Los procesos de negociación con la Argentina durante el estallido y la salida de la crisis de la convertibilidad (1998-2006), 2011. Tesis doctoral, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales.
NOLTE, D. Costs and Benefits of Overlapping regional Organizations in Latin America: The cases of OAS and UNASUR. Latin American Politics and Society 60(1): 128-153, 2018.
NOLTE, D.; MIJARES, V. Regionalismo Poshegemónico en crisis. ¿Por qué la Unasur se desintegra? Foreign Affairs Latinoamérica 18(3): 105-112, 2018.
NORTH, D. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
O’BRIEN, R.; WILLIAMS, M. Global Political Economy. New York: Palgrave, 2016.
OATLEY, T. International Political Economy. New York: Routledge, 2013.
OXFAM. Richest 1 percent bagged 82 percent of wealth created last year – poorest half of humanity got nothing, 2018.
PALMA, J. Why Did the Latin American Critical Tradition in the Social Sciences Become Practically Extinct?. In Routledge Handbook of IPE: IPE as a Global Conversation, edited by Mark Blyth, 243–65, 2009. London: Routledge.
PARPART; PARASHAR (eds.). Rethinking Silence, Voice and Agency in Contested Gendered Terrains. London: Routledge, 2018.
PEIXOTO BATISTA, J. La EPI y las Relaciones Internacionales, ¿Dónde está el Derecho?. Relaciones Internacionales, 26(52):009, 2017.
PETRAS, J.; VELTMEYER, H. The Rise and Demise of Extractive Capitalism, 2012. Available at:
PÉREZ-OVIEDO, W.; CAJA-GUIJARRO, J.; VALLEJO, C. South America: Trade and Integration in the New Global Trade Network. In VIVARES, E.(ed.), Regionalism, Development and the Post-Commodities Boom in South America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. p. 121-146.
PONCE, J.; VOS, R.; ROSERO, J.; CASTILLO, R. Is Latin America’s Rise of the Middle Classes Lasting or Temporary? Evidence from Ecuador. In VIVARES, E.(ed.), Regionalism, Development and the Post-Commodities Boom in South America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. p. 25-46.
PONTÓN, D. Drogas, globalización y castigo: Una aproximación a la gobernanza policial contra las drogas en Ecuador 2011-2016. Cuyo, 2018. Tesis doctoral. Facultad de Ciencias Politicas y Sociales. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo.
PONTÓN, D.; GUAYASAMIN, T. Organized Crime, Security and Regionalism: The Governance of TOC in LA. In VIVARES, E.(ed.), Regionalism, Development and the Post-Commodities Boom in South America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. p. 270-290.
POLANYI, K. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.
PRIETO, G. The Constructivist Political Economy of Regionalism in South America. In VIVARES, E. (ed.), Handbook of International Political Economy. New York: Routledge, 2019. (Forthcoming).
QUILICONI, C. Competitive Diffusion of Trade Agreements in Latin America. International Studies Review 16 (2): 240–251, 2014.
QUILICONI, C.; KINGAH, S.; SOKO, M. BRICS Leadership at the Regional and Global Level: Disposition, Capacity and Legitimacy in a Multipolar Era. London/New York: Springer, 2015.
QUILICONI, C.; SALGADO, R. The South American Regionalisms: A shift or the Return of Economic Integration. In VIVARES, E.(ed.), Regionalism, Development and the Post-Commodities Boom in South America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. p. 291-307.
RABELLO DE CASTRO, P.; RONCI, M.; DORNBUSCH, R.; EDWARDS, S. (eds.) The Macroeconomics of Populism in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. p. 1551-174.
RAVENHILL, J. Global Political Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
RAVENHILL, J. Global Political Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, p. xxiiii + 438.
RAVENHILL, J. International Political Economy in R.A.W. Rhodes (ed.), The Australian Study of Politics. Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009, p. 293-301.
RAY, R.; GALLAGHER, K. China-Latin America Economic Bulletin (Discussion Paper 2015-9). Global Economic Governance Initiative, 2017.
RETTBERG, A.; LEITERITZ, R.; NASI, C. (comp.) Diferentes recursos, conflictos diferentes: La economía política del conflicto armado y la criminalidad en las regiones de Colombia. Bogotá: Ediciones Uniandes, 2018.
RIVERA, F.; PONTÓN, D. Microtráfico en Quito, rutas, mercados y actores 2000-2012, IDRC, Flacso, Relasedor, Quito, 2016.
RIGGIROZZI, P.; TUSSIE, D. The Rise of Post-hegemonic Regionalism: The Case of Latin America. London/New York: Springer, 2012.
RODRIGUEZ, F. Chinese finance and its effects on unequal development in Latin America, 2019. (forthcoming).
ROJAS, C. Acts of Indigenship: Historical struggles for equality and colonial difference in Bolivia. Citizenship Studies, 2013.
SAGUIER, M.; GIOTTO, L. Las empresas transnacionales: un punto de encuentro para la Economía Política Internacional de América Latina. Revista Desafios, Bogotá 30(2): 159-190, 2018.
SAGUIER, M.; BRENT, Z. Regionalismo y Economía Social y Solidaria en Suramérica. Estudios Internacionales 48: 133–154, 2015.
SALGADO, R.; VIVARES, E. The state of methodology in teaching, research and publishing in Latin American International Studies, 2019. Working paper. Presented at IV Congreso de la Red CIPRI, Quito-Ecuador.
SANAHUJA, A. La construcción de una región: Suramérica y el regionalismo posliberal. Una región en construcción. UNASUR y la integración en América del Sur, 2010. Madrid: Fundación CIDOB. p. 87–136.
SASSEN, S. The Global City: Introducing a Concept. The Brown Journal of World Affairs 11 (2): 27–44, 2005.
SAUTÚ, R.; BONIOLO, P.; DALLE, P.; ELBERT, R. Manual de metodología. Construcción del marco teórico, formulación de los objetivos y elección de la metodología. Buenos Aires: CLACSO, 2005.
SEABROOK, L.; YOUNG, K. The networks and niches of international political economy. Review of International Political Economy, 24(2) 288-331, 2017.
SHAW, T.; MAHRENBACH, L.; MODI, R.; YI-CHONG, X. The Palgrave Handbook of Contemporary International Political Economy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.
STANLEY, L.; FERNÁNDEZ, A. The Changing Problem of Regional Development Finance in Latin America. In VIVARES, E.(ed.), Regionalism, Development and the Post-Commodities Boom in South America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. p. 101-120.
STRANGE, S. Wake up, Krasner! The World Has Changed. Review of International Political Economy 1(2): 209-219, 1994.
SVAMPA, M. Consenso de los Commodities y lenguajes de valoración en Latín América. Revista Nueva Sociedad 244: 30–46, 2013.
TAYLOR, I. The Logic of Disorder: ‘Malignant Regionalization’ in Central Africa. In The Political Economy of Regions and Regionalisms, ed. M. Bøås, M.H. Marchand, and T. Shaw. Hampshire: Palgrave, 2005.
TICKNER, A. Hearing Latin American voices in International Relations Studies. International Studies Perspectives, 4, 325-350, 2003.
TICKNER, A.; BLANEY, D. Claiming the International. New York: Routledge, 2013.
TICKNER, A.; WAEVER, O. International Relations Scholarship Around the World. New York: Routledge, 2009.
THORP, R. A Historical Perspective on the Political Economy of Inequality in Latin America. In Latin American Political Economy, (ed.) SANTISO, J.; DAYTON-JOHNSON, J. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. p. 149–167.
TROWNSELL, T.; QUEREJAZU ESCOBARI, A.; SHANI, G.; CHADHA BEHERA, N.; REDDEKOP, J.; TICKNER, A. Recrafting International Relations through Relationality. E-International Relations, 2019.
TURZI, M. The Political Economy of South America’s soybean chain. Buenos Aires: FLACSO and Latín American Network, 2012.
TUSSIE, D. Rutas, Debates y Desafios de la Construcción del Campo de la Economía Política Internacional en América Latina. Flacso – Argentina, 2018.
Como Citar
Vivares, E., & Salgado Espinoza, R. (2021). From Latin American International Political Economy to Latin American Global Political Economy. Estudos Internacionais: Revista De relações Internacionais Da PUC Minas, 9(2), 7-33.