The Status of the Non-Muslim Communities in the Ottoman Empire: A Non-Orientalised Decolonial Approach

  • Naif Bezwan University College London
Palavras-chave: Non-Muslim communities, Ottoman reforms, Millet System, decolonial approach

Resumo

With a focus on the key developments and critical junctures that shaped and reshaped the relationship between the Ottomans and its non-Muslim subject communities, this paper seeks to understand the dynamics and the rationale behind the Ottoman policies and practices vis-a-vis non-Muslim communities. It will do so by offering a periodisation of Ottoman rule along four major pathways, each of which also provides the title of the respective section. The first period is referred to as structural exclusion by toleration over centuries, from the conquest of the respective territories to their incorporation into the imperial domain. The second phase is entitled integration via politics of recognition which basically covers the Tanzimat era (1838-1876). The third period is put under the heading of coercive domination and control, roughly corresponding to the Hamidian Period (1876-1908). And finally, the last period is concerned with the Young Turks regime (1908-1918), discussing its politics and policies towards non-Muslims communities framed under the title of nation-building by nation-destruction.

The chapter titles act both as hypothesis and structuring elements of the periodisation presented. As such they shall help identify the dominant paradigm of each period pertinent to the status and situation of the communities under consideration, while connecting them in a plausible manner. This paper is motivated by a non-Orientalised decolonial approach to the study of the Ottoman empire as well as the nation-states established in the post-Ottoman political geographies.

Biografia do Autor

Naif Bezwan, University College London

Dr Naif Bezwan, Senior Researcher at the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Fundamental and Human Rights, Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law, Faculty of Law at University of Vienna, and Honorary Senior Research Associate at the Department of Political Science, University College London (UCL). Dr Bezwan has worked, conducted research, and taught at diverse universities in Germany, Turkey, Austria and the UK.

Referências

AHMAD, Feroz. The Young Turks and the Ottoman Nationalities Armenians, Greeks, Albanians,

Jews, and Arabs, 1908–1918. 1. ed. [S.l.]: University of Utah Press, 2014.

AKÇAM, Taner. From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide.

ed. [S.l.]: Zed Books, 2004.

AKSAKAL, Mustafa. The Ottoman Empire and the First World War. 1. ed. [S.l.]: Cambridge

University Press, 2008.

AVIV, Efrat. Millet System in the Ottoman Empire. Oxford Islamic Studies, Oxford, v. 28, n.

, p. 1, nov./2006.

BARKEY, Karen. The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective: Empire of Difference. 1. ed.

[S.l.]: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

KARKEY, Karen; GAVRILIS, Gerorge. The Ottoman Millet System: Non-Territorial Autonomy

and its Contemporary Legacy. Ethnopolitics, Online, v. 15, n. 1, p. 24-42, dez./2015.

BEZWAN, Naif. Türkei und Europa. The Staatsdoktrin der türkischen Republik, ihre Aufnahme

in die EU und die kurdishe National Frage, Nomos Verlag. 2008

BLOXHAM, David. The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction

of the Ottoman Armenians. 1. ed. [S.l.]: Oxford University Press., 2005.

BLOXHAM, David; GERWARTH, Robert. Introduction, in Political Violence in Twentieth-

Century Europe. 1. ed. [S.l.]: Oxford: University Press, 2011.

BLOXHAM, David; MOSES, Dirk. Genocide and ethnic cleansing, in Political Violence in

Twentieth-Century Europe. 1. ed. [S.l.]: Oxford: University Press, 2011.

BRAUDE, Bemjamin, B. Foundation Myths of the Millet System. In: BRAUD, Benjamin (ed.);

LEWIS, Bernard (ed). Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: the functioning of a plural

society, Vol.1. New York: Publisher Holmes & Meier, 1982.

BRAUDE. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Abridged Edition with a New

Introduction. 1. ed. [S.l.]: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2014.

BROWN, Carl L. The International Politics and the Middle East, Old Rules, Dangerous

Game. 1. ed. [S.l.]: Princeton University Press, 1984.

CONNOR, Walker. Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding. 2. ed. Princeton: Princeton

University Press, 1994.

Daskalov, DASKALOW, Roumen; VEZENKOV, Alexander The Ottoman Legacy in the Balkans.

In: DASKALOV, Roumen (ed.); VEZENKOV, Alexander (ed.). Entangled Histories of the

Balkans - Volume Three, Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies. Leiden: Brill, 2005, pp. 1-9.

DERINGIL, Selim. “They live in a state of nomadism and savagery”: the late Ottoman Empire and the post-colonial debate. Comparative Studies in Society and History, Cambridge, v. 45, n. 2, p. 311-342, may/2003.

ELDEM, Ethem. The Ottoman Empire and Orientalism: An Awkward Relationship. After Orientalism: Critical Perspectives on Western Agency and Eastern Re-appropriations. Brill, Leiden Studies in Islam and Society, Volume 2, 2015 pp. 89–102,

EMRENCE, Cem. Imperial paths, big comparisons: the late Ottoman Empire. Journal of Global History, Cambridge, v. 3, n. 1, p. 289-311, Nov./2008.

EMRENCE, Cem. Remapping The Ottoman Middle East.: Modernity, Imperial Bureaucracy, and the Islamic State. 1. ed. London: I.B. Tauris, 2011.

FROMKIN, David. A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. 1. ed., New York: An OWL Book, 2001.

GALVÁN-ÁLVAREZ, Enrique. Epistemic Violence and Retaliation: The Issue of Knowledges in “Mother India”. Atlantis, Spain, v. 32, n. 2, p. 11-26, dez./2010.

GINGERAS, Ryan. Fall of the Sultanate: The Great War and the End of the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1922. 1. ed. [S.l.]: Oxford University Press, 2016.

GINGERAS, Ryan. Sorrowful Shores.: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire, 1912–1923. 1. ed. [S.l.]: Oxford University Press, 2009.

GÖÇEK., Fatma M. Reading Genocide, Turkish Historiography on 1915. In: SUNY, Ronald Grigor et al. (ed.). A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 42-54.

GREWE, Wilhelm G. The Epochs of International Law. 1. ed., Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2000.

HANIOGLU, Sükrü. A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire. 1. ed. [S.l.]: Princeton University Press, 2008.

KASABA, Resat. Do States Always Favor Stasis? The Changing Status of Tribes in the Ottoman Empire. In: MIGDAL, Joel S. (ed.). Boundaries and Belonging States and Societies in the Struggle to Shape Identities and Local Practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 29-49

KÜHN, Thomas. An Imperial Borderland as colony: knowledge production and the elaboration of difference in Ottoman Yemen, 1872-1914. MIT Electronic Journal of Middle East Studies, Cambridge, v. 3, n. 1, p. 5-17, abr./2003.

LEVENE, Mark. Genocide in the Age of the Nation State. 1. ed. LONDON: I.B. Tauris, 2005.

LEVENE, Mark. The Crisis of Genocide: Annihilation: The European Rimlands 1939-1953. 1. ed. Oxford: Oxford: University Press, 2013.

LEVENE, Mark. The Crisis of Genocide: The European Rimlands 1912-1938. 1. ed. Oxford: OUP Oxford, 2013.

LORY, Bernard. The Ottoman Legacy in the Balkans. In: DASKALOV, Roumen (ed.); VEZENKOV, Alexander (ed.). Entangled Histories of the Balkans, Volume 3: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies. Leiden: Brill, 2015, pp. 355-405.

MAKDISI, Ussama. Ottoman Orientalism. The American Historical Review, Oxford, v. 107, n. 3, p. 768-796, jun./2001.

MANN, Michael. The sources of social power: Volume 3, Global empires and revolution, 1890–1945. 1. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

MANN, Michael. Infrastructural power revisited. Studies in Comparative International Development, Los Angeles, v. 43, n. 1, p. 355-365, dez./2008.

MANN, Michael. The sources of social power: VOLUME 2, The rise of classes and nation-states, 1760–1914. 1. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

MASTERS, Bruce. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab World: The Roots of Sectarianism. 1. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

MELSON, R. Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust. 1. ed. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1992.

MIGNOLO, Walter. Epistemic Disobedience, Independent Thought and Decolonial Freedom. Theory, Culture & Society, London, v. 26, n. 7, p. 159-181, fev./2010.

MIGNOLO, Walter. The Darker Side of Western Modernity, Global Futures, Decolonial Options. 1. ed. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2011.

MIKHAIL, Alan; PHILLIOU, Christine. The Ottoman Empire and the Imperial Turn. Comparative

Studies in Society and History, Cambridge, v. 54, n. 4, p. 721-745, out. /2012.

MYLONAS, Harris. The Politics of Nation-building: Making Conationals, Refugees, and Minorities.

ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

ÖKTEM, Emre. Turkey: Successor or Continuing State of the Ottoman Empire. Leiden Journal

of International Law, Leiden, v. 24, n. 1, p. 561-583, ago./2012.

QUER, Giovanni M. De-territorializing Minority Rights in Europe: A Look Eastward. Journal

of Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, Flensburg, v. 12, n. 1, p. 76-98, jul./2013.

REYNOLDS, Michael A. Shattering Empires: The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian

Empires, 1908–1918. 1. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

SAID, Edward. Orientalism. 1. ed. London: Penguin Books, 2004.

SHARKEY. Heather J. A History of Muslims, Christians, and Jews in the Middle East. 1. ed.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

SKOCPOL, Theda. Bringing the State Back In. In: EVANS, Peter (ed.); RUESCHEMEYER, Dietrich

(ed.); SKOCPOL, Theda (ed.). Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge, University

Press, 1985, 3–43.

SOHRABI, Nader. Reluctant Nationalists, Imperial Nation-State, and Neo-Ottomanism: Turks,

Albanians, and the Antinomies of the End of Empire. Social Science History, Cambridge, v. 42,

n. 4, p. 835-870, mar. /2018.

TAŞ, Latif. The Myth of the Ottoman Millet System: Its Treatment of Kurds and a Discussion

of Territorial and Non-Territorial Autonomy. International Journal on Minority and Group

Rights, Leiden, v. 21, n. 1, p. 497-526, out. /2014.

TILLY, Charles. After Empire: Multiethnic Societies and Nation-Building. In: BARKEY, Karen

(ed.); von HAGEN, Mark (ed.). The Soviet Union and the Russian, Ottoman, and Habsburg

Empires. Westview Press, (1997) p. 1-11.

TILLY, Charles. Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons. 1. ed. New York: Russell

Sage Foundation, 1989.

TODOROVA, Maria. Imagining the Balkans: Updated Edition. 1. ed. Oxford: Oxford University

Press, 2009.

URSINUS, Michael Zur Diskussion um ‘millet’ im Osmanischen Reich, in Südost−Forschungen

, 195–207. 1989.

WHITE, David. State capacity and regime resilience in Putin’s Russia. International Political

Science Review, Paris, v. 39, n. 1, p. 130-146, dez./2017.

Publicado
18-02-2021
Como Citar
Bezwan, N. (2021). The Status of the Non-Muslim Communities in the Ottoman Empire: A Non-Orientalised Decolonial Approach. Estudos Internacionais: Revista De relações Internacionais Da PUC Minas, 8(4), 10-34. https://doi.org/10.5752/P.2317-773X.2020v8n4p10-34
Seção
Dossiê Império Otomano