The Flexibility of Vietnam’s Tactics in Relation with the QUAD at the End of the Term of U.S. President D.Trump
The restoration of the Quad Allies (Quad) in 2020 shows the changes in the size and quality of the Quad in the last period of the US President Donald Trump's term. In particular, the possibility of expanding membership of this bloc (under the Quad + structure) is increasingly concerned when Vietnam is being encouraged by all four Quad member countries to enhance bilateral and multilateral interactions. side. Therefore, Vietnam that is in a dilemma requires a flexible foreign policy both not to offend important partners in the Quad, and at the same time to keep a good relation with China. To achieve this, Vietnam's flexible behavior requires a full analysis of the trends within the Quad's structure as well as the key areas in which it will develop in the near future... This paper is to analyze the main moves in the interaction between Vietnam and the Quad in particular and within the Quad in general, initially evaluating: (i) the need for a flexible response of Vietnam in its interaction with the Quad, as well as (ii) whether the specific development trends of the Quad make Vietnam's tactic of reducing constraints cause any disadvantages. Two methodologies mainly used in the article are the retracing approach (in part 1) and research of motivation (in part 1 and 2).
The article will be structured in 3 parts: Part 1 focuses on analyzing Vietnam's tactic to reduce constraints through dynamic interactions with the Expanded Quad (Quad +), part 2 focuses on clarifying the the major trends of the Quad through the main move is intra-regional interactions through the Quad Foreign Ministers Meeting (October 4-6, 2020) and part 3 gives recommendations for Vietnam's foreign policy towards the Quad in the near future.
Anh Thu. (2020). “Nhật tập trận chống tàu ngầm ở Biển Đông” [Japan conducts anti-submarine drills in the East Sea]. Tuoi Tre Newspaper. https://tuoitre.vn/nhat-tap-tran-chong-tau-ngam-o-bien-dong-20201010132057249.htm, access 15 August 2021.
Anirban Bhaumik. (2020). “India, Japan finalise pact for cooperation in 5G tech, AI and critical information infra”. Deccanherald. https://www.deccanherald.com/national/india-japan-finalise-pact-for-cooperation-in-5g-tech-ai-and-critical-information-infra-898622.html, access 15 August 2021.
Bhim Bhurtel. (2020). “‘Asian NATO’ plan stillborn at Tokyo Quad meet”. Asia Times. https://asiatimes.com/2020/10/asian-nato-plan-stillborn-at-tokyo-quad-meet/, access 15 August 2021.
Lao Dong Newspaper. (2020). “Việt Nam thông tin về việc tham gia điện đàm “Bộ tứ kim cương mở rộng” [Vietnam's information about participating in the phone call "The Diamond Quad"]. https://laodong.vn/the-gioi/viet-nam-thong-tin-ve-viec-tham-gia-dien-dam-bo-tu-kim-cuong-mo-rong-805419.ldo, access 16 August 2021.
Bao Duy. (2020). “Tàu khu trục Mỹ thách thức Trung Quốc ở Hoàng Sa” [US destroyer challenges China in Paracels]. Tuoi Tre Newspaper. https://tuoitre.vn/tau-khu-truc-my-thach-thuc-trung-quoc-o-hoang-sa-20201009223708657.htm, access 16 August 2021.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of India. (2020a). “13th India-Japan Foreign Ministers’ Strategic Dialogue”. https://www.mea.gov.in/pressreleases.htm?dtl/33100/13th+IndiaJapan+Foreign+Ministers+Strategic+Dialogue, access 16 August 2021.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of India. (2020b). “1st Senior Officials’ India-France-Australia Trilateral Dialogue”. MEA. https://www.mea.gov.in/press-releases.htm?dtl/32950/1st+Senior+Officials+IndiaFranceAustralia+Trilateral+Dialogue, access 16 August 2021.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of India. (2020c). “Foreign Secretary's Conference Call with counterparts from Indo-Pacific Countries”. https://mea.gov.in/press-releases.htm?dtl/32592/Foreign+Secretarys+Conference+Call+with+counterparts+from+IndoPacific+Countries, access 17 August 2021.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. (2020a). “Meeting on the Novel Coronavirus Disease among Foreign Ministers of Interested Countries, Hosted by the United States”. https://www.mofa.go.jp/press/release/press4e_002806.html, access 17 August 2021.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. (2020b). “Japan-U.S. Foreign Ministers’ Meeting”. https://www.mofa.go.jp/press/release/press4e_002926.html, access 17 August 2021.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. (2020c). “The Second Japan-Australia-India-U.S. Foreign Ministers’ Meeting”. https://www.mofa.go.jp/press/release/press6e_000244.html, access 17 August 2021.
U.S. Department of State. (2017). “Joint Statement: U.S.-Japan-Mongolia Trilateral Meeting”. https://2017-2021.state.gov/joint-statement-on-the-u-s-japan-mongolia-trilateral-meeting/index.html, access 17 August 2021.
U.S. Department of State. (2019a). “Blue Dot Network”. https://www.state.gov/blue-dot-network/, access 17 August 2021.
U.S. Department of State. (2019b). “Readout of U.S.-Australia-India-Japan Ministerial”. https://2017-2021.state.gov/readout-of-u-s-australia-india-japan-ministerial-the-quad/index.html, access 17 August 2021.
U.S. Department of State. (2020a). “Deputy Secretary Biegun Remarks at the U.S.-India Strategic Partnership Forum”. https://2017-2021.state.gov/deputy-secretary-biegun-remarks-at-the-u-s-india-strategic-partnership-forum//index.html, access 17 August 2021.
U.S. Department of State. (2020b). “Secretary Pompeo’s Meeting with Australian Foreign Minister Payne”. https://2017-2021.state.gov/secretary-pompeos-meeting-with-australian-foreign-minister-payne-3/index.html, access 19 August 2021.
U.S. Department of State. (2020c). “U.S.-Australia-India-Japan Consultations (“The Quad”)”. https://2017-2021.state.gov/u-s-australia-india-japan-consultations-the-quad-3/index.html, access 19 August 2021.
U.S. Department of State. (2020d). “Secretary Michael R. Pompeo Opening Remarks at Quad Ministerial”. https://2017-2021.state.gov/secretary-michael-r-pompeo-opening-remarks-at-quad-ministerial/index.html, access 19 August 2021.
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2019). “Third India-Australia-Indonesia Trilateral Senior Officials’ Dialogue”. https://www.dfat.gov.au/news/media/Pages/third-india-australia-indonesia-trilateral-senior-officials-dialogue, access 23 August 2021.
Francesca Regalado. (2020). “China poses a 'security threat' to Japan, Taro Kono says”. Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-relations/China-poses-a-security-threat-to-Japan-Taro-Kono-says, access 23 August 2021.
“GOP 'Attack China' playbook, earlier virus deaths hint at larger US disinformation campaign”. Global Times. https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1186696.shtml, access 23 August 2021
Humeyra Pamuk - Andrea Shalal. (2020). “Trump administration pushing to rip global supply chains from China: officials”. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-usa-china/trump-administration-pushing-to-rip-global-supply-chains-from-china-officials-idUSKBN22G0BZ, access 23 August 2021.
Indrani Bagchi. (2019). “India, US, Japan discuss improving connectivity in Indo-Pacific region on G20 sidelines”. Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-us-japan-discuss-improving-connectivity-in-indo-pacific-region-on-g20-sidelines/articleshow/69993549.cms, access 23 August 2021.
Indrani Bagchi. (2020a). “India joins hands with NZ, Vietnam, S Korea to combat pandemic”. Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-joins-hands-with-nz-vietnam-s-korea-to-combat-pandemic/articleshow/74740424.cms, access 27 August 2021.
Indrani Bagchi. (2020b). “India, Quad-Plus countries discuss Covid-19 battle, economic resurgence”. Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-quad-plus-countries-discuss-covid-19-battle-economic-resurgence/articleshow/74861792.cms, access 27 August 2021.
Kirsty Needham. (2020). “Australia faces down China in high-stakes strategy". Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/australia-china-relations/, access 27 August 2021.
Kyodo News. (2020). “Japan, U.S. agree to work on alternative to Aegis Ashore plan”. https://english.kyodonews.net/news/2020/10/159accfe7c2b-japan-us-agree-to-work-on-alternative-to-aegis-ashore-plan.html, access 27 August 2021.
Jagannath Panda. (2019). “‘JAI’, the Quad and China: Understanding the Undercurrents”. German Institute for International and Security Affairs. https://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/projekt_papiere/BCAS_2019_Panda_Quad_and_China.pdf, access 4 September 2021.
Jagannath Panda. (2020). “India and the ‘Quad Plus’ Dialogue”. RUSI. https://rusi.org/commentary/india-strategic-quad, access 4 September 2021.
Jennifer Lyn. (2020). “US Blue Dot Network to counter China’s BRI”. Asia Times. https://asiatimes.com/2020/05/us-blue-dot-network-to-counter-chinas-bri/, access 4 September 2021.
Jyoti Malhotra. (2020). “China is feeling the heat over Covid-19 — from Japan to Australia. But India’s hands are full”. The Print. https://theprint.in/opinion/global-print/china-is-feeling-the-heat-over-covid-19-from-japan-to-australia-but-indias-hands-are-full/401126/, access 4 September 2021.
Leigh Hartman. (2020). “What is the Blue Dot Network for infrastructure financing?”. US Bureau of Global Public Affairs. https://share.america.gov/what-is-blue-dot-network-for-infrastructure-financing/, access 6 September 2021.
Mk Bhadrakumar. (2020). “India gains nothing from an ‘Asian NATO’”. Times of India. https://asiatimes.com/2020/09/india-gains-nothing-from-an-asian-nato/, access 6 September 2021.
Natalie Huet. (2020). “UN chief warns over threat of new Cold War between US and China”. Euro News. https://www.euronews.com/2020/09/22/un-chief-warns-over-threat-of-new-cold-war-between-us-and-china, access 6 September 2021.
Nguyen Nham. (2020). “Tham gia “Bộ tứ mở rộng” có là cơ hội cho Việt Nam?” [Is joining the “Expanded Quartet” an opportunity for Vietnam?]. Communist Party of Vietnam Online Newspaper. https://dangcongsan.vn/cung-ban-luan/tham-gia-bo-tu-mo-rong-co-la-co-hoi-cho-viet-nam-555568.html, access 10 September 2021.
Nhat Dang. (2020). “Mỹ tái cấu trúc chuỗi cung ứng ?” [The US restructures the supply chain?]. Tuoi Tre Newspaper. https://tuoitre.vn/my-tai-cau-truc-chuoi-cung-ung-20200506085535756.htm, access 10 September 2021.
Peter Mccawley. (2019). “Connecting the dots on the Blue Dot Network”. The Interpreter. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/connecting-dots-blue-dot-network, access 10 September 2021.
Phuong Anh. (2018). “Mỹ tuyên bố áp thuế 25% với 50 tỷ USD hàng hóa Trung Quốc” [The US announced to impose 25% tariffs on $50 billion of Chinese goods]. VOV. https://vov.vn/the-gioi/my-tuyen-bo-ap-thue-25-voi-50-ty-usd-hang-hoa-trung-quoc-775206.vov, access 11 September 2021.
Rajat Pandit. (2011). “India snubs trilateral security pact with Australia, US to check China”. The Economic Times. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/india-snubs-trilateral-security-pact-with-australia-us-to-check-china/articleshow/10954852.cms, access 11 September 2021.
Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan. (2020). “Australia-Japan-India Trilateral Sets Sights on Supply Chain Resilience”. The Diplomat.
Sachin Parashar. (2020). “India hopes Russia will join Indo-Pacific with Japan trilateral”. The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-hopes-russia-will-join-indo-pacific-with-japan-trilateral/articleshow/77450048.cms, access 12 September 2021.
Sanjeev Miglani - Kirsty Needham. (2020). “Australia will join naval drills involving India, U.S., Japan”. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/india-military-exercises-idUSKBN2741J1, access 12 September 2021.
Shishir Gupta. (2020). “India-US 2 plus 2 on Oct 26-27, geospatial pact BECA to be signed”. The Hindustan Times. https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/third-india-us-2-2-talks-likely-on-october-26-27-pact-on-geo/story-fSBiUWocOwIZ9wfgzw8d4K.html, access 12 September 2021.
Thu Hang. (2019). “Chiến tranh công nghệ: Trung Quốc thiệt trước mắt, Mỹ thua đường dài”. News. https://baotintuc.vn/phan-tichnhan-dinh/chien-tranh-cong-nghe-trung-quoc-thiet-truoc-mat-my-thua-duong-dai-20191221084757337.htm, access 12 September 2021.
Tanvi Madan. (2020). “Emerging global issues: The China-India boundary crisis and its implications” .Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/testimonies/emerging-global-issues-the-china-india-boundary-crisis-and-its-implications/, access 15 September 2021.
Global Times. (2020). “US COVID-19 accountability act against China irresponsible and immoral: FM”. https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1188265.shtml, access 15 September 2021.
Copyright (c) 2023 Estudos Internacionais: revista de relações internacionais da PUC Minas
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Autores que publicam nesta revista concordam com os seguintes termos:
1. Autores mantém os direitos autorais e concedem à revista o direito de primeira publicação, com o trabalho simultaneamente licenciado sob a Licença Creative Commons Attribution que permite o compartilhamento do trabalho com reconhecimento da autoria e publicação inicial nesta revista.
2.Autores têm autorização para assumir contratos adicionais separadamente, para distribuição não-exclusiva da versão do trabalho publicada nesta revista (ex.: publicar em repositório institucional ou como capítulo de livro), com reconhecimento de autoria e publicação inicial nesta revista.
3.Autores têm permissão e são estimulados a publicar e distribuir seu trabalho online (ex.: em repositórios institucionais ou na sua página pessoal) a qualquer ponto antes ou durante o processo editorial, já que isso pode gerar alterações produtivas, bem como aumentar o impacto e a citação do trabalho publicado (Veja O Efeito do Acesso Livre).