Competição entre China e Estados Unidos na América Latina: evolução, perspectivas e implicações no contexto do COVID-19

  • Florencia Rubiolo CONICET / Universidad Católica de Córdoba
  • Diego Telias Universidad ORT Uruguay
Palavras-chave: China, América LAtina, Estados Unidos, Covid-19, Rota da Seda Sanitária

Resumo

Na última década, a China se estabeleceu como um ator-chave no sistema internacional e sua influência se irradia para todos os cantos do mundo. A América Latina não é exceção a esse fenômeno. A participação econômica da China na região teve impactos políticos que levaram à competição inevitável com os Estados Unidos. É neste contexto de competição que surge a pandemia COVID-19, com profundas consequências para os países latino-americanos.

O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações entre a América Latina e a China no contexto da competição com os Estados Unidos e a pandemia do COVID-19. O artigo aborda como a competição evoluiu, principalmente na área da saúde após o surto de COVID-19. Para isso, são discutidas as principais ações da China na região a partir de uma perspectiva teórica da economia política internacional e a partir de conceitos como diplomacia de máscaras e “wolf warrior diplomacy”.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Florencia Rubiolo, CONICET / Universidad Católica de Córdoba

CIECS (CONICET y UNC) Doctora en Relaciones Internacionales (UNR, Argentina). Investigadora Adjunta en el Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de Argentina (CONICET, CIECS). Correo electrónico: frubiolo@gmail.com

Diego Telias, Universidad ORT Uruguay

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile & Universidad ORT Uruguay. Candidato a Doctor en Ciencia Política de la Universidad Católica de Chile (Becario CONICYT PFCHA/DOCTORADO BECAS NACIONALES/2019 – 2119032) y docente de la Facultad de Administración y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad ORT Uruguay. Correo electrónico: detelias@uc.cl

Referências

ALLISON, G. Destined for War: Can America and China Escape Thucydides’s Trap?. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2017.
ALON, I.; ZHANG, W. & LATTEMANN, C. China's Belt and Road Initiative: Changing the Rules of Globalization. Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.
ÁMBITO.COM Los hermanos sean unidos. Retrieved from: https://www.ambito.com/opiniones/china/los-hermanos-sean-unidos-n5096032, 2020.
ASIAN INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT BANK. Members and Prospective Members of the Bank. Official website. Retrieved from https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html, 2020
ASPINWALL, N. Pompeo urges Tedros to invite Taiwan to WHA. Retrieved from. https://thediplomat.com/2020/05/pompeo-urges-tedros-to-invite-taiwan-to-wha-as-more-countries-join-campaign/, 2020
BALDWIN, D. Economic Statecraft. Surrey-UK: Princeton University Press, 1985.
BENABDALLAH, L. Contesting the international order by integrating it: the case of China’s Belt and Road initiative. Third World Quarterly 40 (1): 92-108, 2019.
BLANCHARD, J-MF. & RIPSMAN, N. Economic statecraft and foreign policy. Sanctions, incentives, and target state calculations. Routledge, 2013.
BRAUTIGAM, D. U.S. and Chinese Efforts in Africa in Global Health and Foreign Aid: Objectives, Impact, and Potential Conflicts of Interest. In Freeman, C. China's Emerging Global Health and Foreign Aid Engagement in Africa. Washington: Centre for Strategic & International Studies, p 1-12, 2011.
BUCKLEY, P & MENG, C. The Strategy of Foreign-Invested Manufacturing Enterprises in China: Export-Orientated and Market-Orientated FDI Revisited. Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies 3(2): 111–31, 2005.
CELAC. Plan de Acción Conjunto de Cooperación en Áreas Prioritarias CELAC-CHINA (2019-2021). Retrieved from https://celac.rree.gob.sv/documento-oficial/plan-de-accion-conjunto-de-cooperacion-en-areas-prioritarias-celac-china-2019-2021/, 2018
CHANG LIAO, N. Domestic Politics and China’s Assertive Foreign Policy: Why China’s Rise May Not Be Peaceful. In: LENG TK., AOYAMA, R. Decoding the Rise of China, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 85-106, 2018.
CHEN, D., PU, X., & JOHNSTON, A. I. Debating China’s Assertiveness. International Security, 38(3): 176–183, 2014.
CHINA DAILY. Major health exchange and cooperation on the Belt and Road Initiative. Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/m/chinahealth/2015-12/18/content_22774412.htm, 2015.
CHINA DAILY, Newly elected WHO chief reiterates one-China principle. Retrieved from http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2017-05/25/content_29490575.htm, 2017.
CHRISTENSEN, T. The Advantages of an Assertive China: Responding to Beijing’s Abrasive Diplomacy, Foreign Affairs, 90 (2): 54–67, 2011.
CLARKE, M. The Belt and Road Initiative: Exploring Beijing’s Motivations and Challenges for its New Silk Road. Strategic Analysis, 42(2): 84-102, 2018.
D’HOOGUE, I. China’s public diplomacy. Leiden: Brill. 2014.
ELLIS, E. China in Latin America: The Whats and Wherefores. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. 2009.
EMBAIXADA DE CHINA EM BRASIL. Retrieved from: https://twitter.com/EmbaixadaChina/status/1240456558007508993?s=20, 2020.
EMBASSY OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA TO SWEDEN. Ambassador Gui Congyou Gives Exclusive Interview to Valdemar Lonnroth from Göteborgs-Posten. Retrieved from: http://www.chinaembassy.se/eng/sgxw/t1624939.htm, 2019.
FENG, Z & HUANG, J. China's Strategic Partnership Diplomacy. ESPO Working Paper No. 8. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=2459948, 2014.
FINANCIAL TIMES. Taiwan says WHO failed to act on coronavirus transmission warning. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/2a70a02a-644a-11ea-a6cd-df28cc3c6a68, 2020.
FOOT, R. Constraints on conflict in the Asia-Pacific. Political Science, 66:2, 119-142, 2014.
FORNES, G., & MENDEZ, A. China and Latin America in the Twenty-First Century. In FORNES, G & MENDEZ, A (eds),,The China-Latin America Axis. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, p. 1–15, 2018.
FRIEDBERG, A. A Contest for Supremacy: China, America, and the Struggle for Mastery in Asia. New York: W. W. Norton, 2011.
GARLICK, J. The impact of China`s Belt and Road Initiative. London: Routledge, 2020.
GOBIERNO MUNICIPAL DE SANTA CRUZ DE LA SIERRA. Fundación Tzu Chi de Taiwán dona insumos médicos para hospitales de Santa Cruz. Retrieved from http://gmsantacruz.gob.bo/noticia-municipal.php?mostrar=2020-05-25-E, 2020
HE, K. & FENG, H. Debating China’s assertiveness: Taking China’s power and interests seriously. International Politics 49 (5): 633–644, 2012.
HUANG, Y. Tedros, Taiwan, and Trump: What They Tell Us About China’s Growing Clout in Global Health. Retrieved from: https://www.cfr.org/blog/tedros-taiwan-and-trump-what-they-tell-us-about-chinas-growing-clout-global-health, 2017.
IKENBERRY, J. The end of liberal international order?. International Affairs 94 (1): 7–23, 2018
JOHNSON, C. President Xi Jinping’s Belt and Road Initiative. A Practical Assessment of the Chinese Communist Party’s Roadmap for China’s Global Resurgence. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington DC, p. 1-38, 2016.
JOHNSTON, A. How New and Assertive Is China’s New Assertiveness? International Security, 37 (4): 7-42, 2013.
KOTSCHWAR, B. China’s Economic Influence in Latin America. Asian Economic Policy Review 9: 202–222, 2014.
LA VANGUARDIA. China y Vargas Llosa se pelean por el coronavirus. Retrieved from https://www.lavanguardia.com/libros/20200317/474226470985/vargas-llosa-china-coronavirus.html, 2019
LANCASTER, K; RUBIN, M & RAPP-HOOPER, M. Mapping China’s Health Silk Road. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from
https://www.cfr.org/blog/mapping-chinas-health-silk-road, 2020.
LE NATIONAL. Une compagnie basee en Chine vient en aide au corps medical haitien. Retrieved from http://www.lenational.org/post_free.php?elif=1_CONTENUE/actualitees&rebmun=6577, 2020.
LIANG, W. Pulling the Region into its Orbit? China’s Economic Statecraft in Latin America. Journal of Chinese Political Science: 1-17, 2019.
MAYER, M. China’s historical statecraft and the return of history. International Affairs 94(6): 1217-1236, 2018.
MEARSHEIMER, J. The tragedy of great power politics. New York : W.W. Norton & Company, 2014.
MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS. Conferencia de Prensa Habitual Ofrecida 24 de Marzo de 2020 por Geng Shuang. Retrieved from https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/esp/xwfw/lxjzzdh/t1760929.shtml, 2020.
MYERS, M. & BARRIOS, R. China’s Medical Outreach in LAC: Facts and Features. The Dialogue. Retrieved from https://www.thedialogue.org/blogs/2020/05/chinas-medical-outreach-in-lac-facts-and-features/, 2020.
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND REFORM COMMISSION. Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21stCentury Maritime Silk Road. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved http://www.beltandroadforum.org/english/n100/2017/0410/c22-45.html, 2015.
NATIONAL HEALTH COMMISION. Beijing Communiqué of The Belt and Road Health Cooperation & Health Silk Road. Retrieved from http://en.nhc.gov.cn/2017-08/18/c_72257.htm, 2017.
NOLAN, P. “Preface”. In FANG, C & NOLAN, P (eds). Routledge Handbook of the Belt and Road. New York: Routledge, pp. xxi-xxiv, 2019.
OFFICE OF THE LEADING GROUP FOR THE BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE. Building the Belt and Road: Concept, Practice and China’s Contribution. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. 2017
PARRA PÉREZ, A. OBOR: las 5 claves de la mayor iniciativa de infraestructuras mundial liderada por China. Documento Opinión 113, Instituto Español de Estudios Estratégicos; 1-20, 2017.
PAZ, G. “Rising China’s “offensive” in Latin America and the U.S reaction”. Asian Perspective 30 (4), pp. 95-112, 2006.
PU, X. Controversial Identity of a Rising China. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 10(2): 131–149, 2017.
QIN, Y. “Continuity through Change: Background Knowledge and China’s International Strategy”. Chinese Journal of International Politics, Vol. 7, No. 3 (2014): 285–314, 2014.
REN, M. “Global health and the Belt and Road Initiative”, Global Health Journal 2 (4): 1-4, 2018.
ROLLAND, N. “China's Belt and Road Initiative. Five Years Later”. Testimony before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. January 25. Retrieved https://www.nbr.org/publication/chinas-belt-and-road-initiative-five-years-later/, 2018.
RUBIOLO, F. “South America-Asia Pacific relations: Belt and Road and beyond”, en Observatorio América Latina-Asia Pacífico (comp.), América Latina y Asia: entre la revolución digital y una globalización cuestionada. Montevideo: ALADI, CAF, CEPAL. [en prensa], 2020.
SCOBELL, A. & HAROLD, S. An “Assertive” China? Insights from Interviews. Asian Security, 9(2): 111-131, 2013.
SHAMBAUGH, D. China Goes Global: The Partial Power. New York: Oxford University Press. 2013.
SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST. Jack Ma donates masks, medical supplies to help coronavirus fight in Asia and Latin America. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3076319/jack-ma-donates-18-million-masks-medical-supplies-help, 2020.
SWAINE, M. Perceptions of an Assertive China. China Leadership Monitor, 32: 1-19, 2010.
TANG, K; ZHIHUI, L; WENKAI, L & CHEN, L. China's Silk Road and global health. The Lancet 390: 2595-2601. Retrieved from https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)32898-2/fulltext, 2017.
TOJE, A. Will China's rise be peaceful? Security, Stability and Legitimitacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.
TU REPÚBLICA. Arrogancia y prejuicio perjudican la lucha internacional contra el COVID-19. Retrieved from https://turepublica.com/noticias/arrogancia-y-prejuicio-perjudican-la-lucha-internacional-contra-el-covid-19/, 2020.
URDINEZ, F & MASIERO, G. China and the WTO: Will the Market Economy Status Make Any Difference after 2016?, The Chinese Economy, 48 (2): 155-172, 2015.
US DEPARTMENT OF STATE. Official Launch of the Growth in the Americas Initiative. Retrieved from https://www.state.gov/official-launch-of-the-growth-in-the-americas-initiative/, 2019.
US DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES. U.S. Statement on Taiwan's Participation at the World Health Assembly. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2020/05/19/us-statement-on-taiwan-participation-at-the-world-health-assembly.html.
VADELL, J. China-CELAC Forum and the new regionalism for a multipolar world: the challenges for South-South Cooperation, Revista Carta Internacional 13 (1): 6-37, 2018.
WALT, S. “Rising Powers and the Risks of War”. In Will China's rise be peaceful? Security, Stability and Legitimacy, editing by TOJE, A. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.
WANG, Y & LI, S. The Belt and Road Initiative framework. In FANG, C & NOLAN, P (eds), Routledge Handbook of the Belt and Road, New York: Routledge, pp. 99-105, 2019.
WEN, J. “Vigorously Promoting Comprehensive Strategic Partnership Between China and the European Union”. Speech at the China-EU Investment and Trade Forum. Retrieved from http://www.chinamission.be/eng/zt/t101949.htm, 2004.
WISE, C. U.S.-China Competition in the Western Hemisphere. In TELLIS, A., SZALWINSKI, A. & WILLS, M. U.S.-China Competition for Global Influence, Washington: National Bureau of Asian Research, pp. 276-305.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Background on supplementary agenda. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA73/Background_on_supplementary_agenda.pdf, 2020
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Contributors Statistics. Retrieved from https://open.who.int/2018-19/contributors/contributor, 2019.
XINXHUA. “Especial: Diez preguntas y respuestas sobre COVID-19 en videoconferencia entre China y Argentina”. Retrieved from http://spanish.peopledaily.com.cn/n3/2020/0326/c31617-9672667.html, 2020.
XINHUANET. Xi says China to send more medical experts to Italy. Retrieved from http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-03/17/c_138886179.htm, 2020.
XU, Y. China’s strategic partnerships in Latin America. Case studies of China’s oil diplomacy in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela, 1991-2015. London: Lexington Books, 2017.
YU, J. “The belt and road initiative: domestic interests, bureaucratic politics and the EU-China relations”. Asia Europe Journal 16: 223–236, 2018.
YU, L. “China’s strategic partnership with Latin America: a fulcrum in China’s rise”. International Affairs 91 (5): 1047–1068, 2015.
ZHANG, Y. “China and Liberal Hierarchies in Global International Society: Power and Negotiation for Normative Change.” International Affairs 92(4): 795–816, 2016.
ZHU, Z. Interpreting China’s ‘Wolf-Warrior Diplomacy‘. What explains the sharper tone to China’s overseas conduct recently? The Diplomat. May 15, 2020.
ZHOU, F. China’s economic restructuring and the Belt and Road. In FANG, C & NOLAN, P (eds), Routledge Handbook of the Belt and Road, New York: Routledge: 15-20, 2019.
ZOU, Lei. The Political Economy of China's Belt and Road Initiative. Singapore: World Scientific, 2018.
Publicado
10-01-2022
Como Citar
Rubiolo, F., & Telias, D. (2022). Competição entre China e Estados Unidos na América Latina: evolução, perspectivas e implicações no contexto do COVID-19. Estudos Internacionais: Revista De relações Internacionais Da PUC Minas, 9(4), 43-62. https://doi.org/10.5752/P.2317-773X.2021v9n4p43-62
Seção
Special Issue: China